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  1. Auto-stop: Behind the technology So, now we know how auto-stop works, what's happening behind the scenes? It turns out there's much more to it than just an engine control module (ECM) controlled starter motor. However, the starter motor is a great place to start in discussing the technology. If you listen to a vehicle start up that has auto-stop technology, you'll note the starter sounds much different than a vehicle with a conventional starter. That's because an auto-stop equipped vehicle will see much higher start motor usage than a vehicle without auto-stop technology. As such, the starter motor has the following upgraded features: High performance electrical windings and characteristics Improved-strength starter pinion gear engagement system Improved design to both reduce starter noise and decrease engine start times In addition to improving the starter motor, battery monitoring technology must be improved as well, to more accurately measure the state of the battery charge. A modest count of auto-stop cycles can lead to a discharged battery relatively quickly since the starter motor requires so much current to operate. In order to more accurately measure the state of charge in the battery, there is an intelligent battery sensor connected to the battery which continuously monitors both the charge state and the overall health of the battery itself. Another major component of the auto-stop system is an auxiliary fluid accumulator for the automatic transmission. This is an ECM-controlled unit which accumulates and captures transmission line pressure from the transmission, and then allows it to be supplied to the transmission to begin clutch engagement when the vehicle is transitioning from auto-stop to engine running mode. Beyond these major components, many subsystems are monitored in order to determine either whether an auto-stop event can be allowed, or if a transition to engine-running should be performed. Conditions to allow auto-stop to occur General vehicle state: Hood is closed Driver's door is closed Driver seatbelt is buckled Vehicle operating conditions: Vehicle is moving less than 3MPH Initial drive cycle reaching 12MPH Engine speed is below 1500 RPM Engine is not in an overheated conditions Transmission is in DRIVE (L or M range disables auto-stop) Brake is depressed No pending or set diagnostic trouble codes for auto-stop (and related) subsystems Auto-stop active for less than 2 minutes Environmental conditions: Warmer than 40*F outside Battery temperature warmer than 32*F and less than 131*F High demands on HVAC system are not requested (inc. defrost) All of the above conditions are continuously monitored, and if any of the criteria fail to be met, the engine will restart. TRIFECTA Performance Auto Stop Mode How it works is simple: When the cruise control subsystem is armed (via the steering wheel button), auto-stop works normally, just as it did from the factory. When the cruise control subsystem is disarmed, auto-stop events are re-calibrated with sport and performance strictly in mind. Furthermore, the feature can be enabled and disabled at any time. For example: If the vehicle is auto-stopped, switching the cruise control subsystem off causes the engine to restart immediately. If the engine is running because no auto-stop event could occur due to the cruise control system being disabled, enabling it will cause the engine to stop immediately, provided all of the other auto-stop criteria above is met as well. All of this, and there is no effect on the operation of the cruise control system. Conclusion We have always prided ourselves on providing value-added features to vehicle owners through our calibration products. TRIFECTA Performance Auto-Stop Mode is no exception, and we believe it will become very popular as more vehicles incorporate auto-stop technology! - TRIFECTA Advanced Software Division
  2. Old School Fuel Injectors Ironically, the relatively modern LUJ/LUV uses the relatively old-school “EV1” style fuel injector connector. As such, aftermarket fuel injector choices are somewhat limited unless costly harness adapters are used. Bosch “Green Giants” 42# Fuel Injectors These fuel injectors have been popular in the aftermarket for some time. This a very good, general purpose fuel injector for the 1.4T engine, because they're not so large that they cause injector misfire or over fueling problems at idle. They are available with an “EV1” style connector, so harness adapters are not necessary. They are large enough to support full E85 on the stock turbo, and mild turbo upgrades (e.g. compressor wheel upgraded units). However, there are three problems with them: Fakes / non authentic replicas: When we first started testing these injectors back in the 2011-2012 time frame, the first set we received worked fantastic. Then, our supplier sent us a new set which were “much cheaper”. Despite looking the same, these did not work well, at all. The engine had misfire problems at idle. Upon investigation, we determined that this second “cheaper” set of fuel injectors was in fact a replica and was built using very poor manufacturing tolerances. Price: Why are there replicas / knock offs? The answer is simple: the authentic units are expensive! As of this writing, authentic “green giants” cost anywhere from $200-$250, retail, for a set of 4. Availability: For reasons not yet determined, the availability of the “green giants” has diminished as of late. Most retailers have them back ordered. Bosch 52# Fuel Injectors As of more recently, the Bosch 52# fuel injector has become an option for the 1.4T. They share most of the same benefits that the “green giant” does, however, there are two problems with these fuel injectors: Not “EV1” connector: This one's simple. They won't directly plug in to the engine harness of the 1.4T. As such, to use these, you need to add bulky, costly harness adapters. Price: Looking around at various retailers, a set of these injectors, with the required harness adapters will run you anywhere from $250 - $300 for a set of four. Siemens-Deka 60# (SD-60) Fuel Injectors You can throw a stone and hit five gear heads that know what these injectors are. They were one of the first widely-available “EV1” style aftermarket fuel injector upgrades for the LS1 engine dating back to the end of the last century. These fuel injectors are high performance with enough fuel flow to solve the fueling problems of almost any streetable high performance build. They are readily available, being very easy to source. They are also one of the lowest cost high performance aftermarket fuel injector available, with a set of four pricing in at $150-$200. Because they are available in the “EV1” style connector, they can be used on the 1.4T without harness adapters. If they could be used on the 1.4T, they'd be the perfect choice. However, they are also notoriously finicky in some regards, and based on our early research, were ruled out as feasible. That's changed now, though. First, a discussion about the problems with them. Curse of the SD-60s One of the issues that's plagued tuners since the SD-60s became available is their short pulse width operation. The larger (higher flowing) a fuel injector is, the more fuel it moves for a given amount of “open” time (pulse width). Also, the larger a fuel injector is, the more difficult it is to control at extremely short pulse widths, because the internal parts are larger, and therefore, heavier. If a fuel injector is operated at too short a pulse width, the injector can “misfire”. The ECU tries to open and close the injector so fast, it cannot do so reliably. When it fails to open and close, no fuel is injected, and the cylinder misfires. These two issues confluence to make idle operation with SD-60s extremely problematic and challenging. On larger engines, like the LS1, for instance, which displaces .7125L / cylinder, the SD-60s are relatively close to providing the correct amount of fuel for idle operation. However, on smaller engines, like the 2.0L SC MPFI (LSJ) – which displaces .5L / cylinder – the SD-60s cannot run at a short enough pulse width for proper fueling. So a tuner is left with making a choice between two not-so-good scenarios. Either they can live with the injector misfiring at idle, or they live with pinning down the minimum injector pulse width to avoid misfiring, but which causes the idle mixture to be too rich. The 1.4T is EVEN SMALLER, clocking in at .35L / cylinder. In other words its fuel demand per cylinder is roughly HALF of the LS1 engine. This means the problems seen on the 2.0L are even worse. We figured this out back in 2011-2012 and quickly eliminated the SD-60s as a viable choice for the 1.4T at the time. However, we recently revisited it, and now we think it's the best choice. Here's why... The LUJ/LUV Chassis Control Module Did you know that your Gen 1 Cruze / Gamma II has a variable speed fuel pump? It's true. And it's controlled by a discrete ECU called the Chassis Control Module (CCM). The CCM receives messages from the Engine Control Module (ECM) that dictate what the fuel pressure supplied to the injector rail should be. Why? The answer is that because these vehicles are both MPFI and turbocharged, the fuel pressure supplied to the injector rail needs to be varied based on how much boost there is in the intake manifold. The factory calibration varies the pressure between 300kPa (43.5 psi) and 400kPa (58psi) depending on the operating conditions. In our earlier research, we experimented with SD-60s and a lowered commanded fuel pressure in the ECM calibration. However, at the time, the CCM would not honor requests from the ECM to run the pump at a pressure level that was low enough to work with the SD-60s. Less is More More recently, however, we decided to look into whether we could change the CCM's calibration to honor requests from the ECM to run the fuel pressure at a level that was low enough to support the SD-60s. Here's the deal: Yes, the SD-60s flow way too much fuel (at idle) for the 1.4T – but that's at 43.5psi. If you lower the fuel pressure, the flow rate goes down. And as a result, the pulse width can be increased. With a specific CCM calibration, matched with an ECM calibration, we found we were able to run the SD-60s on the 1.4T with NO problems. No injector misfire. No rich idle. In fact, our engineers thought the 1.4T idled SMOOTHER with the SD-60s than even the stock injectors, or the “green giants”! SD-60s are Looking Like the Best Option The ECM/CCM is simply a reflash (software update) for the vehicle. If you're switching injectors, you're going to be flashing the ECM anyway. We always thought if the SD-60s could be made to work, they'd be the best fuel injector for the 1.4T. They're the cheapest and easily available. With TRIFECTA's ECM/CCM calibration, now the SD-60s are a real option for 1.4T tuners!
  3. Gen 2 Cruze turbo upgrade currently under development and testing!
  4. This will delay the launch of our turbo just a bit longer, we need to calibrate with the larger compressor, but we're expecting better gains over the 55mm turbo! Stay tuned!
  5. Control your Boost Turbocharged engines rely one of a few different methods of controlling the boost level. Most modern-day gasoline engines rely on a “wastegate”, while diesel engines generally rely on Variable Geometry Turbochargers (VGT). In both cases, boost pressure and airflow is the result of engine exhaust gasses passing through the turbine of the turbocharger, of which the compressor shares a common shaft. Hence, turbine acceleration causes compressor acceleration which causes boost pressure and airflow to rise. With a wastegated turbocharger, the turbine and compressor speed are controlled by allowing a variable amount of engine exhaust gasses to bypass the turbine. With a VGT, the angle and shape of the turbine vanes can be changed on the fly, which affects the speed of both the turbine and compressor. VGTs are considered to be more efficient as the turbocharger's mechanical characteristics can effectively be changed, on the fly. (As an aside, the reason VGTs aren't prevalent on gasoline engines is because the exhaust temperatures tend to be much higher, although materials technology has caught up and VGTs are slowly making their way into high end gasoline engined vehicles like the Koenigsegg One:1) Wastegated Turbochargers The remainder of this article will focus on wastegated turbochargers (specifically internally wastegated turbochargers), since that is the type that is used in on the 1.4L turbocharged engine. In the age before Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controlled engines, the original wastegated turbochargers used a purely mechanical approach to controlling the boost. A calibrated “wastegate actuator” (WGA) would use spring pressure to hold the wastegate “default-closed”. Exhaust pressure levels “pre-turbine” (in other words, the exhaust pressure between the exhaust port and the “front side” of the turbine) rise in accordance with boost levels, and once there is sufficient pressure on the wastegate to overcome the spring weight in the WGA (sometimes called the cracking pressure), the wastegate will start to open and allow exhaust to bypass the turbine. This regulates boost pressure and airflow. LUJ/LUV Turbocharger turbine and internal wastegate (wastegate closed) LUJ/LUV Turbocharger turbine and internal wastegate (wastegate open) In the age of purely mechanical wastegates, it was relatively easy to increase boost levels beyond OE design specifications – all one had to do is install a heavier spring in the WGA, and the cracking pressure would increase, which would cause the turbine to spin faster, which in turn would cause the compressor to spin faster and compress more air. Of course, fueling and ignition advance curves would have to be modified, not to mention charge cooling systems as increasing the boost would also increase the amount of heat generated from compressing the incoming air. ECU Control – A Twist on Mechanical Wastegates When ECUs started managing engine operation, engineers had to come up with a method that would allow the boost to be regulated electronically, and, additionally through a closed-loop feedback system that would allow the ECU to compensate for changes in environment (air temperature, altitude, fuel quality) as well as changes to the engine operation as it wore mechanically. The earliest turbocharged engines from General Motors utilized a similar WGA as was from the mechanical days, with a twist: the addition of a pressure reference port which could effectively lower the WGA cracking pressure by applying pressurized air. LUJ/LUV Wastegate Actuator (WGA) In this system, there is also a boost control solenoid (BCS) which is essentially like an electronic diverter valve. By providing a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal from the ECU, the ECU can control how much of the boost pressure coming from the compressor is allowed to be directed to the WGA. On General Motors vehicles, the usable PWM duty cycle range is 5% to 95%, where 5% causes the maximum amount of boost pressure to be directed to WGA, and 95% causes minimal amount of the boost pressure to be directed to the WGA. In other words, when the BCS command is 5%, the lowest amount of boost will be produced, and when it is 95%, the highest amount of boost will be produced. The following pictures show the BCS on the LUJ/LUV engine: LUJ/LUV Boost Control Solenoid (BCS) The ECU determines the “desired boost” level based on myriad decision inputs, including calibrated power limits, calibrated powertrain component limits (e.g. maximum turbocharger compressor speed), driver power demand, altitude, incoming air temperature, amount of historical knock, just to name a few. Once the ECU makes a decision on the boost level, it references a calibrated table to decide how much duty cycle should be output to the BCS, and drives (commands) the BCS to that duty cycle. The ECU then monitors incoming air mass via the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor, the intake Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor, the Throttle Inlet Absolute Pressure (TIAP, or “boost”) sensor, and several Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensors to determine if the turbocharger is operating as desired. If the actual boost level is lower than the desired boost level, this is considered an “underboost” condition and the ECU will make some dynamic increases to the BCS signal to try to correct the condition. If the actual boost level is higher than the desired boost level, this is considered an “overboost” condition and the ECU will dynamically reduce the BCS signal to try to correct the condition. In an overboost condition, it may take further, more drastic measures depending on the severity of the condition such as shutting down boost entirely, closing the throttle blade, or opening the bypass valve. This is done to protect the engine and its components (more on these conditions later). The ECU employs a Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID controller) strategy to both immediately correct boost control errors, and also correct predicted future boost control errors. This is the “closed loop” portion of the system. The parameters of this system are part of the ECU calibration and can be modified as needed. This article won't go into depth regarding how a PID controller works, but there's a great reference on Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller) that describes both the method and the mathematics behind it. Advancements in ECU Turbocharger Controls Since the original boost control system design on General Motor vehicles, two variants have come along. The first is used on the twin turbo V6 engines (RPO: LF3, LF4 and LGW). The system works very similarly to the “default closed” systems originally used, but in this case, the wastegates are “default open”. Mechanical spring pressure holds the wastegate open until boost is required. The advantage with this system is it allows for more efficient engine operation. If you consider the “default closed” system design, one drawback is the exhaust gasses are ALWAYS flowing through the turbine. Even under light duty, even where no boost is requested by the ECU, the exhaust still flows through the turbine, and the turbine still acts as an exhaust restriction, which reduces efficiency. The only way the wastegate can be opened is for the mechanical spring pressure to be exceeded, which can only happen when there's sufficient boost. The “default open” design aims to resolve this shortcoming. Instead of using positive pressure (boost) to control the WGA, negative pressure (vacuum) is used. When the WGA is subjected to atmospheric pressure, the wastegate is fully open. As the pressure supplied to the WGA drops, it starts to pull against a spring inside the WGA to close the wastegate. The negative pressure is generated by a mechanical pump driven by an engine component, and is controlled using a BCS which directs a controlled amount of vacuum to the WGA. It is essentially the inverse of the “default closed” system design. LF3 turbocharger with “default open” wastegate design This system is not without its drawbacks, however. It's significantly more complicated than the “default closed” system design because it relies on a system of vacuum pumps, lines and solenoids to control the turbocharger. Another interesting issue that has arisen on this system is the turbochargers can be noisy. The wastegate valve itself is a floating valve attached to the wastegate actuator arm. When the wastegates are open, they have a tendency to create an annoying rattling sound, and because the aim of the design was to keep the wastegates open under low power levels and at idle, the sound can be easily heard. General Motors even revised the turbocharger assembly several times in order to correct the problem. This cannot be an issue on “default closed” systems because the wastegate valve would be held against the wastegate orifice under these light load and idle conditions. But, on the very newest turbocharged engines General Motors is producing, such as the new 2.0L turbocharged engine (RPO:LSY), its larger 2.7L cousin (RPO: L3B), and the new 4.2L twin turbo V8 engine (RPO: LTA a.k.a. “Blackwing”), there's an exciting new technology being used! Doing away entirely with all of the pressure-based controls, the ECU now simply drives what is essentially the equivalent of a throttle blade actuator which directly drives the wastegate position. It also uses the “default open” design to improve efficiency. The aftermarket has not yet delved into calibrating any of these engines, so little is known about how effective this new solution is. Limitations with the Gen 1 1.4L Turbo Engine Wastegate System Now, we will discuss the specific issues with the LUJ/LUV engine turbocharger's wastegate system. The main issue we have observed is there can be quite a variance in the cracking pressure of the OE WGA assembly. Based on our years of experience in calibrating these vehicles, we can say that on average, a safe assumption is that the highest boost level that can be had on the OE WGA assembly, at sea level is around 20-22psi of boost. However, we've have also seen OE WGA assemblies that will support more than 25-26psi of boost. Our assumption is that because these vehicles, in stock form were never designed to make these kinds of boost levels, perhaps the manufacturing tolerances in the OE WGA is somewhat lax. When calibrating customer vehicles, however, we have to start with the lowest common demoninator or else our customers could end up with boost control diagnostic failures and subsequent “boost limp mode”. Collection of LUJ/LUV WGAs that all have different cracking pressures Adjusting OE WGA “Preload” a.k.a. “Playing With Fire” One of the classic (or perhaps “infamous”) techniques for changing boost levels (particularly before boost levels were managed by an ECU) was to adjust the length of the rod from the WGA to the wastegate arm. The original intent of using an adjustable rod length was to allow calibration of the wastegate but hot-rodders quickly figured out if they shortened the length of the rod, they could either restrict the amount the wastegate could open, or otherwise cause the cracking pressure to go higher (because of the additional preload on the spring). On the LUJ/LUV engine, indeed an adjustable length threaded rod is used between the WGA and the wastegate, but the factory attempts to prevent tampering by using some sort of locking compound on the threads. This isn't enough to stop a dedicated tinkerer, but we wholly recommend AGAINST modifying the length of this arm for the simple reason that it can cause the turbocharger to overspin which leads to either a failed turbocharger assembly, or a failed engine. LUJ/LUV WGA showing tamper-resistent compound on actuator arm adjustment Additionally, changing the WGA rod length will have no effect on the boost potential without corresponding tuning changes because the ECU will detect there's more boost than expected and simply respond by either commanding less BCS duty cycle, or closing the throttle. Introducing the Forge Billet WGA for the LUJ/LUV Forge is an aftermarket UK company that specializes in engineering and manufacturing aftermarket WGAs (among many other parts). They have developed a billet aluminum WGA for the LUJ/LUV engine (Forge part number FMACC14T). One of the fascinating features of their part is the mechanical cracking pressure can be adjusted through the use of interchangible springs. Through our testing process, we found their part to be incredibly consistent from unit to unit (unlike the OE WGA) and of high quality. Forge Motorsport FMACC14T w/ “Yellow” spring pre-installed When you purchase this WGA from Forge, off the shelf it includes a “green” spring pre-installed in the WGA. We found this spring to be too “light” - in other words, the cracking pressure was actually LOWER than the OE WGA. We tested the next heavier spring, which is the “yellow” spring, and found it to be a suitable choice for the LUJ/LUV in that it allows boost pressures to reach the potential of the engine and OE turbocharger closely. We could have, of course, chosen an even heavier spring (such as the “red” spring). However, there is a trade-off using a heavier spring that needs to be recognized. Not only does the heavier spring weight raise the cracking pressure of the wastegate (e.g. the MAXIMUM potential boost level), but it also, in effect, raises the MINIMUM pressure that can be made from the turbocharger when 100% of the pressure is being sent to the WGA (e.g. 5% duty cycle). The OE WGA has a minimum of around 5psi of boost, but the Forge WGA with the “yellow” spring is closer to 12psi. We chose the “yellow” spring because it's the lightest spring that can allow the maximum boost potential to be reached which in turn raises the mininum boost by the lowest amount possible. If the minimum boost level is raised too far, it can cause a clunky driving experience, because the ECU will have to manage the torque by closing the throttle blade instead of being able to open the wastegate. Forge Motorsport WGA installed on LUJ/LUV turbocharger So, what about the power? We recently performed a series of tests on one of our development vehicles. It is a 2016 Chevrolet Sonic LT, with the LUV engine, and a manual transmission. It has the following modifications: 60 lb/hr fuel injectors RacerX cold air intake SPEC billet aluminum flywheel WaveTrac Limited Slip Differential (LSD) TRIFECTA calibration Out of the LUJ/LUV vehicles we have at our disposal, this one was closest to stock configuration, and the few modifications it does have would not materially affect the power output, except for perhaps the flywheel. As expected, on the stock calibration (adjusted for the 60 lb/hr fuel injectors), this vehicle baselined at fairly high numbers on our dyno: Peak power output was 135 horsepower (HP) at the wheels (WHP), and 151 lb-ft torque (TQ) at the wheels (WTQ). Considering this vehicle is rated at 139HP / 149TQ at the flywheel from the factory, it would seem indeed the aluminum flywheel had a positive impact on power output for this vehicle. TRIFECTA Calibration with the OE WGA As started above, we consider 22psi (at sea level) to be the highest boost level that can be achieved on the OE WGA. This dyno chart shows what 22psi on this vehicle produced versus the OE calibration: Under these test conditions, PEAK gains went up by approximately 26WHP and 47WTQ. However, particularly with horsepower levels after the curve, gains are much higher than 26WHP – e.g. at 6300 RPM, the gains are closer to 45WHP. High RPM power delivery holds much further into the high RPM range than on the OE calibration. TRIFECTA Calibration with the Forge WGA and “Yellow” Spring Finally, we tested the vehicle and calibrated it to its full potential with the Forge WGA. Observe the following dyno chart: Versus the OE WGA, we gained another 17WHP, and a whopping 33WTQ! The torque gains are so impressive because this engine can really utilize boost levels higher than 22psi at the low to mid RPM range. Choosing some key RPM points, the following table summarizes the gains that were possible with just tuning and the Forge WGA: 3500 RPM 5500 RPM 6000 RPM 6300 RPM OE WGA / Calibration 146WTQ 133WHP 123WHP 115WHP OE WGA / TRIFECTA (22psi) 190WTQ(+44) 155WHP(+22) 143WHP(+20) 141WHP(+26) Forge WGA / TRIFECTA 229WTQ(+39/+83 total) 166WHP(+11/+33 total) 157WHP(+13/+33 total) 156WHP(+15/+41 total) More than just Power Believe it or not, the vast majority of calibration work required to make the Forge WGA work correctly has nothing to do with getting the big power gains. Because the turbocharger response from the BCS was dramatically altered with the installation of this part, we needed to start from scratch in dialing in the BCS table and the other PID controller constructs. We've spent about a week of total time on the dyno with various LUJ/LUV vehicles just getting everything mapped correctly. Without proper calibration work, people installing this sort of part are likely to have sporadic, or even common issues with “boost limp mode”. This is where the ECU detects that there's been an ongoing boost control problem for long enough that it shuts down the boost control system entirely. This results in a maximum boost level of about 12psi (or 5psi on the OE actuator) and a very powerless vehicle! - TRIFECTA Performance
  6. We started with a 2017 Chevrolet Cruze hatch. We took the original engine and transmission out, and swapped in an engine and transmission from a 2017 Chevrolet Malibu Premier. This is the 2.0L turbocharged engine coupled with the 9T50 front wheel drive 9 speed automatic transmission. With proper calibration work, this engine and transmission in its stock form can deliver about 300HP at the flywheel. This equates to around 240HP at the wheels, which is about 70WHP more than the LE2 can produce with a proper tune. We didn't stop there, though. We also installed aftermarket cams to increase airflow and fuel pump supply. And we added our "T40" turbocharger, which produced darn near 400HP when we tested on a Chevrolet Malibu recently. We have an aftermarket front mount intercooler for tuned up 2.0T engines, a cold air intake, and a custom dual-outlet exhaust system. The challenges were many in building this car. Which axles to use? Which mounts? Where to move the radiator to make room for the turbocharger? The wiring! The engine may fit in this car like it was designed for it, but there couldn't be much more different with the wiring harness on the Cruze vs the Malibu. But, in the end, it all works, as if Chevrolet themselves built the car. You push the start button and the engine roars to life through the custom exhaust system with an aggressive yet tasteful note. It may seem like the little things, but it's the little things that matter: The gauges work. The heater works. The brakes work. Shift it into Drive, and you're off. The 9sp automatic transmission peels through the gears smoothly. Put the pedal down, and hold on. The car is a work in progress, there's still a few things that need to be done with it (like fabbing a bracket for the ECM instead of using zip ties lol), but make no mistake, the Cruze has entered a new age.
  7. Also, note there appears to be an internal PCV system like the Gen1, and also this intake manifold has a LOT of oil in it (this engine has less than 1000 miles on it). It makes us wonder if the oil ingestion has to do with the piston problems the LE2 has? Could a catch can help?
  8. Our Cruze RS with a 100hp shot of nitrous, for your enjoyment!
  9. Initial testing puts this on par with a tuned LE2, and will cost a heck of a lot less than it would cost to trade up to one. Stay tuned as we move forward on this project!
  10. An HSN** means that the part was installed and tested for correct functionality on a TRIFECTA development vehicle, with the TRIFECTA calibration product, and if any specific calibration changes are necessary to support or optimize it, these changes have been established and finalized. As such, customers wishing to install this part on their vehicle may do so under the Advantage line product and will not require any customization beyond, in some cases, a parts-specific calibration update. The following is the manufacturer's description of the product: (For full info, please see the manufacturer's website here: MPFab Intake System for 2011-2015 Chevy Cruze 1.4L Turbo) During our testing, we found this intake system to deliver accurate airflow metering with the OE mass air flow calibration meaning this intake can be used with our without a performance / custom tuning / calibration. We found the sound and the quality of the kit to surpass most of the other mass market intake systems available for this vehicle. Future or existing TRIFECTA customers interested in purchasing this product may be able to do so through TRIFECTA, please contact our support team for more info! **Please note: A Hardware Support Notification (HSN) from TRIFECTA is a statement that we tested the product with our calibration products, and in some cases may include performance data collected and/or ad-hoc comments on the product by TRIFECTA. TRIFECTA is not specifically affiliated with, nor specifically endorses (or is endorsed) by the product listed in this HSN. TRIFECTA makes no warranty or claims regarding the quality or performance of the product listed in an HSN. In some cases, TRIFECTA may act as a reseller of hardware described in an HSN and as such may receive a profit by reselling said hardware. TRIFECTA always recommends that hardware be installed by an experienced and certified shop or facility. Unless otherwise specified, customers purchasing hardware from TRIFECTA would need to work directly with the manufacturer in the event there is a question regarding installation. Unless otherwise specified, all hardware available through TRIFECTA will “drop ship” from either the manufacturer, or a distributor.
  11. Figure 1 – Racer X Manifold for the 1.4L Turbo (RPO:LUJ/LUV) Summary We found, with appropriate recalibration, the Racer X Fabrication intake manifold increases power as measured on the dyno, by up to 12 horsepower as measured at the wheel. Torque output peak was unchanged, but did shift up the RPM band by about 200 RPM (e.g. it took 200 RPM more to reach peak torque). Figure 2 – Dyno sheet showing Stock vs Racer X performance Beyond the power gains, it is our opinion this product will be popular in this market because it also permanently and effectively addresses the PCV issues this engine is known for, provides a custom upgrade part (and look) for these vehicles, and also allows for future expansion, as there are several unused ports in the end of the manifold which could be utilized for additional instrumentation, or water, water/methanol, and/or nitrous injection directly into the manifold. Comparison to Ported Intake Manifold (OE) Prior to the arrival of the Racer X manifold, the only other intake manifold modifications that had been widely used were the porting of the intake runners of the stock intake manifold, the so-called ported intake manifold, and the PCV system modification. Figure 3 – Stock Intake Manifold with “air tumblers” The OE intake manifold has a restriction in the runner near the intake port. It is believed these are actually air tumblers and are meant to induce intake charge swirl for more efficient combustion. However, it is also theorized that these air tumblers reduce and restrict airflow when higher levels of airflow are introduced (e.g. turning up the boost, upgraded turbocharger, etc.). We had performed a preliminary test on a ported manifold versus a stock manifold several years back and saw negligible change in power on the dyno, but a possible loss of efficiency (more timing advance was required to maintain similar power levels to unported manifold). Ironically, while the effect is the ECM reports the power output level has increased due to the additional timing advance (despite a wash on the dyno), the loss of efficiency could be attributed to less efficient mixing of the air and fuel charge due to the lack of tumblers, but a more conclusive test is needed. Figure 4 – OE Ported Intake Manifold The PCV system modification addresses PCV system failures that are prevalent on this engine by utilizing an external, and more robust check valve for introducing PCV vapors back into the intake manifold. This is achieved by installing a brass fitting in the bottom of the PCV chamber in the intake manifold, routing the PCV vapors either to a throttle body spacer, or the brake booster fitting. Figure 5 – OE Manifold PCV Modification While both of these modifications are popular in the community, they are also considered do it yourself (DIY) modifications which require special tools and skill. At the time this test was conducted, we did not have a ported intake manifold available, but we plan to do a comparison to it in the future. TRIFECTA Calibration Support We are pleased to announce immediate and full support for the Racer X manifold for the GM 1.4L turbo engine in our full custom calibration tier (Elite). Additionally, we will offer a free update for any TRIFECTA customer of record on or before 05/31/2018, regardless of which product tier they purchased! Test Vehicle The test vehicle is a 2016 Chevrolet Cruze Limited LT, equipped with the 1.4L Turbo engine (RPO: LUV), and the six speed automatic transmission. The vehicle has approximately 18,500 miles on the odometer, and aside from the manifold is also equipped with a catless down pipe, cat less mid pipe, and K&N cold air intake system. There were no other pertinent modifications to the vehicle. “92 octane” fuel, considered premium unleaded in the Seattle, WA area was used for all tests. Figure 6 – Test Vehicle Test Procedure In order to keep the test results as accurate as possible, we tested both manifolds on the same day, on the same vehicle, on the same chassis dyno, back to back. We tested the Racer X manifold first, since we had installed it previously for calibration procedure. After performing several test “pulls” on the dyno, in manual 4th gear, we let the car cool down, installed the stock manifold, warmed it to operating temperature, and performed several test “pulls”. From the beginning of the test procedure, to the end, the ambient air temperature only changed about 2*F. The dyno used was a Dynojet 424xLC all wheel drive dyno equipped with eddy current load cells (but were not used for the test). The vehicle was operated in manual 4th gear for all test pulls. After the dyno brake was released, the vehicle was put in manual 3rd gear, run up to 20 MPH, shifted to manual 4th gear, then decelerated to 1100 RPM, and then a wide open throttle maneuver was executed. The vehicle was operated until 6200 RPM, and the dyno “pull” was concluded. Figure 7 – Test Vehicle on the dyno, with Racer X manifold Installation The installation of this manifold is fairly straightforward, but isn't 100% “reversible” (more on this later). The manifold has an optional PCV system “add-on”, but we couldn't see how this manifold could be installed without it, unless one chose to simply vent PCV gases to the atmosphere, or perhaps someone wanted to fabricate their own PCV solution. Installation requires transferring (from the stock manifold): 1. The fuel rail and fuel injectors to the new manifold, 2. The EVAP solenoid, and 3. The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor. The installation instructions also call for retaining the turbo bypass valve (BPV) control solenoid so the Engine Control Module (ECM) won't set the check engine light, but we chose to skip this step and devised a means of installing the manifold without the BPV control solenoid without any negative effect via the ECM calibration. While we say this kit isn't 100% “reversible” (more like 90% “reversible”) it's of little consequence, in our opinion, because it would be unlikely an end customer would want to, or ever go back to their stock intake manifold. It's not fully reversible, because it requires cutting of some of the hard plastic lines that route to the brake booster and the PCV vent to the turbocharger inlet in order to complete installation. Initial Test Drive Our test vehicle was equipped with the production TRIFECTA Advantage calibration. On the first test drive, we noticed two issues with the vehicle, one was a hesitation and “dip” in power, in some cases accompanied by audible spark “knock” in the 5000 RPM range under full acceleration, and what seemed to be a somewhat laggy pedal response. While the manifold manufacturer states the manifold will work without issue on the stock calibration, it was clear to us that some additional calibration work would be needed for vehicles that have a more powerful aftermarket calibration. One net effect of using this intake manifold, which sports a larger intake plenum volume than the factory intake manifold is that actual manifold pressure levels end up lower than stock (while moving a higher amount of airflow due to flow and efficiency improvements). These changes in airflow and pressure dynamics showed us more in depth recalibration would be required. Dyno Calibration Session We spent most of a full day addressing the vehicle performance issues we had noted previously (the most time consuming being the full recalibration of the wastegate duty cycle table). We were able to resolve all of the performance issues and were able to regain the throttle response we experienced with the stock manifold. After completing the dyno calibration session, and resolving some minor calibration issues with street testing, we put approximately 1000 miles on the vehicle as a short term reliability test. No further issues were experienced. Airflow and Pressure Statistics When we performed the final back to back test on the dyno with the Racer X manifold vs the stock manifold, the following airflow and pressure statistics were observed: Airflow (mass air flow sensor) lb/min, 6020 RPM and Manifold Absolute Pressure: Compressor inlet pressure: 98 kPa RacerX: 18.55 lb/min, 211 kPa (113 kPa, 16.385 psi boost) Stock: 18.32 lb/min, 227 kPa (129 kPa, 18.705 psi boost) At 6020 RPM, in both cases, maximum pressure is obtained from the compressor. However, despite the manifold being at almost 2psi less boost pressure RacerX vs stock, the airflow is still higher, which is a more accurate measure of performance. We also sampled the data at 5500 RPM, the airflow differences were more pronounced (with similar manifold pressure): Compressor inlet pressure: 98 kPa RacerX: 18.62 lb/min, 229 kPa (131 kPa, 18.995 psi boost) Stock: 17.52 lb/min, 225 kPa (127 kPa, 18.415 psi boost) Conclusion Our testing has shown this product increases power, addresses several long-term issues with this platform (PCV system issues) all while offering a unique and customized look to the enthusiast's Chevrolet Cruze or Chevrolet Sonic! We believe it will continue to be a popular choice for people seeking the best for their vehicle!
  12. Why the update? Some of you have provided valuable feedback regarding the drivability of our current-generation product, which we have taken into careful consideration. What is changing? This update is a drivability update specific to vehicles with an automatic transmission, which does the following: "Sport+" mode replaces "Sport" mode: Sport+ mode is an evolution of the original Sport mode which broadens the "tip-in" range in the accelerator pedal. Sport+ mode also introduces the same progressive shifting algorithm we've incorporated into vehicles with the 8, 9, and 10 speed automatic transmissions without sacrificing mid-pedal sensitivity for a more well-balanced, sporty feel! "Standard" mode replaces "Stock" mode: In transitioning from our Sport mode to Stock mode, many feel the Stock mode is much too conservative on take-off. Our original goal was to retain the stock pedal and transmission response as accurately as possible in stock mode, but the challenge is the difference is too great between Sport (and now Sport+) and Stock mode. Many customers requested that we provide a mode that's improved over stock, but still retains a more relaxed driving style. With Sport+ and Standard mode, take-off dynamics are very similar, and the transition is much smoother, especially with TRIFECTA's exclusive Performance Auto Stop Mode (selectable auto-stop enable). Are there any changes in performance / power output? This update retains the same power envelope as our current-generation TRIFECTA calibration, and is a pedal-response and transmission strategy (drivability) update only. How do I receive the update? All existing Gen II Cruze customers with automatic transmissions have already been notified by email, and their calibrations updated in their downloads. All that is necessary is to download and install the update. New customers will receive the update as our standard offering. If you have any questions, or require any assistance, please don't hesitate to email us at info@trifectaperformance.com or use the Contact Us form at trifectaperformance.com. In the mean time, stay tuned to us here at http://www.trifectaperformance.comand Facebook for the latest information from TRIFECTA! Thank you - TRIFECTA Performance View this product in our store: 2016--2018+ Chevrolet Cruze / Cruze Hatch - 1.4L Turbo Read more about TRIFECTA's Support for the Gen II 1.4T LE2 Cruze: TRIFECTA: More power, more fun for your 2016+ Chevrolet Cruze 1.4L Turbo (LE2) TRIFECTA: Making Auto Stop more performance oriented. Meet Performance Auto Stop Mode. TRIFECTA: Baseline dyno testing of the 2016 Chevrolet Cruze RS 1.4 Turbo (RPO LE2) TRIFECTA: 1.4L Turbo Throttle Body Comparison LE2 to LUJ/LUV TRIFECTA: Meet the GM LE2 Engine
  13. 1.4L vs 2.0L turbocharged engines Looking at the numbers from the 1.4T engine vs the 2.0T engine, you can see why people that want to go really fast with a Cruze might want to do this. The 1.4T engine, from the factory produces 139HP (the new 1.4T “LE2” engine produces 154HP), and the 2.0T engine produces anywhere from 220HP to 272HP depending on which engine and variant is used. Put an aftermarket calibration on these engines and they approach 200-220HP, and 300-330HP, respectively. (Source: media.gm.com) So, let's swap the engine already! Great! So we know we want a 2.0L turbo engine in our Cruze, let's just swap one in! Unfortunately, it's not even close to being that simple. The 1.4T and the 2.0T are of different physical sizes, and are of varying architecture, specifically being that the earlier 2.0T (the LNF/LHU engine) has the turbocharger on the opposite side of the engine as the 1.4T does. The newer 2.0T (LTG engine) has the turbocharger on the correct side, but still has the challenge of being physically larger than the 1.4T. Right off the bat, custom engine mounts would have to be developed, coolant and oil hoses would need to be customized, new exhaust would have to be fabricated, front to back, wiring harness would have to be customized. Now, we would surmise that swapping in a 2.0T (LHU engine) from a Buick Verano, being that the Verano is of the same chassis as the Cruze, might allow the use of factory harnesses and parts that would make the swap much easier, but every element listed above should still be of concern. But that's just the engine. Then there's the transmission. Particularly in front wheel drive applications like the Cruze, GM has no less than eight different transmissions supporting varying levels of torque. The Cruze with the 1.4T is equipped with the 6T40 transmission, and the Verano, for instance, is equipped with the 6T50 transmission. One might get away without swapping the transmission, but for completeness's sake, we're going to assume this needs to be swapped as well. Then there's ECU swap, the potential for needed customized drive axles, upgraded radiator size, etc. Cost of engine swap In any event, let's just assume, for simplicity's sake that the entire engine, transmission, harness, and ECU can just be swapped from the Verano. We couldn't find any specific salvage pricing on this, but we'd expect it to be in the $2000-$4000 range for all of the components required. Then there's the labor of doing the swap. Maybe an enthusiast would undertake this on their own, in which case tangible labor cost would be zero. Miscellaneous parts, exhaust fabrication, etc., we estimate would add another $2000 or so to the project cost. But then there's the resale value of the vehicle itself. If someone were to perform a swap like this on a Cruze, its value would plummet. This vehicle, even assuming it ran perfectly, would require a special buyer when the time came to sell it. The oldest Cruzes available in the United States sell for between $8500 and $15000. We'd expect a swap like this to cause a 30% loss in value, so, let's say $2500 just to pick a round number. Total cost of engine swap: about $7500 or more Yes, we said it: buy a Malibu instead of a Cruze As mentioned above, this is a bold idea. Most current or potential Cruze owners, right off the bat would scoff at this idea. Buying a “family hauler” instead of the more-sporty Cruze?? After all, Malibus are built for the rental car agencies, right? A Malibu lacks style at all. It's big. It's heavy. It's slow. There's no aftermarket for it. And it's more expensive. However, starting with the 2016 model year, Chevrolet introduced both an all-new Cruze and all-new Malibu. The aesthetic differences between the two are much fewer than with the previous generation. Malibu vs Cruze Indeed, Chevrolet is now using fairly common design language between the Cruze, Malibu, and the larger-yet Impala. If we are to assume that the looks of the all-new Malibu are acceptable to a potential Cruze owner, let's move on to a more detailed analysis of the likenesses and differences between the two models. Performance: You can get a 2.0T with a Malibu. And also an 8 speed automatic. The new Cruze, for 2016, only offers one engine: the 1.4L Turbo LE2 engine, which produces 154HP and 177 lb-ft of torque. The new Malibu offers two engines (exc. the Hybrid model), a 1.5L Turbo LFV engine (163HP / 184lb-ft torque), and a 2.0L Turbo LTG engine (250HP / 260lb-ft torque). For the purposes of this writing, however, we are only going to look at the 2.0L Turbo engine. While the fact the Malibu doesn't offer a manual transmission (whereas the Cruze does) would be a deal-breaker for some people, the truth is most Cruzes are built and sold with an automatic transmission. A 6 speed automatic transmission. The Malibu, in contrast, with the 2.0L Turbo engine, is equipped with a smooth shifting 8 speed automatic transmission (also used in the Buick LaCrosse, and the Cadillac XT5). And for the 2017 model year, the Malibu 2.0L Turbo is stepping up to GM's all-new 9 speed automatic transmission. Not only does the Malibu 2.0T offer 96HP and 83lb-ft of torque more than the Cruze, with the 8 speed automatic transmission, there is a greater gear ratio spread which also contributes to both quicker acceleration compared to a 6 speed automatic, but also improved highway fuel economy vs a 6 speed automatic. How does the rest of the car match up? For sake of comparison, we will compare a 2016 Cruze LT Automatic/RS Package/Sun and Sound Package with a 2016 Malibu 2LT. For the Cruze, the LT Automatic/RS Package/Sun and Sound package is by far the most popular model at the dealerships, and the Malibu 2LT is the lowest trim level which is equipped with the 2.0T. Also, this gives us an apples-to-apples comparison. Don't get us wrong. The Malibu is a bigger car than the Cruze. It's more spacious in every way, but it also weighs more. But not THAT much more. The Cruze, in its lightest form weighs in at about 2600lbs. The Malibu weighs in at about 3100lbs. For those that love sunroofs, the Malibu's sunroof is quite superior. It's roughly double the size of the Cruze's sunroof (though only the front half of it opens). The Malibu comes with leather at this trim level, whereas the Cruze does not. The Malibu comes with 18” wheels, the Cruze with 16” wheels. Both have disc brakes on all corners. One area we feel the Cruze is superior, however, is in the handling-feel department. The Cruze has a stiffer ride, and experiences less “body roll” in the corners than its larger brethren, the Malibu. Economy-wise, the Cruze is rated up to 42MPG, and the Malibu up to about 35MPG with the 2.0T. Cost comparison At the end of the day, it comes down to cost. The Malibu is more expensive, for certain, but by significantly less than what it would cost to do an engine swap. According to Chevrolet.com, the 2016 Cruze LT Automatic, with the RS package, and the Sun and Sound package (which requires other packages such as the Convenience package) has an MSRP of $25335. The 2016 Malibu 2LT “base model”, which is similarly equipped to the Cruze LT Automatic, with the RS package, and the Sun and Sound package is $29495. This is a difference of only $4160. More car, a heck of lot more power, with similar styling. However, we found, at the time of purchase for both our Cruze 1.4T and our Malibu 2.0T, there were significantly better incentives available on the Malibu. At that time, one could lease a Malibu Premier, with every option under the sun, far beyond even the Malibu 2LT's option load-out, for about $275/mo and $3600 down payment, for 24 months. This works out to a total cost of $10,200 for two years. The Cruze, in contrast, was offered with the same lease terms for about $265/mo, and $2400 down payment. This works out to a total cost of $8760. This is only a difference of $1440 over the course of two years, and this is for a Malibu that is even more well-equipped than the Malibu 2LT we used for comparison. Were one to compare terms on the Malibu 2LT, it might actually be cheaper to acquire the Malibu than the Cruze! Conclusion We're making a very strong case for the Malibu vs the Cruze, here, for those that like the Cruze styling but want more power than the Cruze has to offer. Both the Cruze and the Malibu are especially exciting vehicles to drive with an aftermarket calibration, but, we have to be honest, the Malibu 2.0T with an aftermarket calibration blows the doors off a Cruze with an aftermarket calibration. Hence, we call the tuned Malibu 2.0T, “The 300HP Cruze”. Those considering a new Cruze, particularly those that want to go fast, should take a hard look at the Malibu. With the previous generation Malibu, we would have agreed with you: Are you kidding? But the new Malibu is a world's worth of improvement over the previous generation, and the differences between the Cruze and Malibu have been largely blurred. As is the pricing difference. TRIFECTA Calibration Engineering Team
  14. https://vimeo.com/168252702 This automatic transmission development vehicle put down a peak of 125.18 horsepower (HP) and 133.63 lb-ft of torque (TQ) at the wheels (uncorrected) using a dyno-jet chassis dyno. Given drivetrain losses, this is generally in-line with the manufacturer's rated power of 153HP and 177TQ at the crankshaft, particuarly comparing to what a first generation Cruze with an automatic transmission will put down as well. After our engineers collect all of the data from the stock vehicle, the fun part begins - modifying the calibration to find the potential power gains! As we've discussed previously, the LE2 engine represents part of the future for GM, and their small gasoline engines! Stay tuned for more development and progress as we continue developing for the 2016+ Chevrolet Cruze 1.4 Turbo (RPO: LE2)! -TRIFECTA SGE Performance Team
  15. Small Gasoline Engine (SGE) SGE family engines range in displacement from 1.0L (three cylinder) to 1.5L. All use a common bore size of 74mm, and there are three stroke configurations available - 77.4mm, 81.3mm, and 86.6mm (and as such, all engines are considered "undersquare" where the stroke is longer than the bore size). At the time of writing there were four SGE engines either in use or scheduled to be in use in the United States: RPO: LV7 - 1.4L naturally aspirated, multi point fuel injected (MPFI). Used in the 2016+ Chevrolet Spark, making 98HP and 94 lb-ft torque. Bore/stroke is 74mm/81.3mm. RPO: LE2 - 1.4L turbocharged, spark ignited direct injected (SIDI). Used in the 2016+ "gen II" Chevrolet Cruze, and the 2016+ Buick Encore Sport Touring Edition, making 153HP and 177 lb-ft torque. Bore/stroke is 74mm/81.3mm. RPO: L3A - 1.5L naturally aspirated, spark ignited direct injected (SIDI). Used in the 2017+ "gen II" Chevrolet Volt, making 100HP and 103 lb-ft torque. Bore/stroke is 74mm/86.6mm. RPO: LFV - 1.5L turbocharged, spark ignited direct injected (SIDI). Used in the 2016+ Chevrolet Malibu, making 163HP and 184 lb-ft torque. Bore/stroke is 74mm/86.6mm. The SGE family is slated to replace three different, older GM engine families, S-TEC, Family 0, and Family 1. Comparison of LE2 to the LUJ/LUV (Family 0, outgoing Cruze turbo engine) When just looking at the numbers, it might be simple to conclude the LE2 is simply a direct-injected variant of the LUJ/LUV, but that's not really the case at all. The LE2 is a clean-sheet redesign, and, while it shares some characteristics with the LUJ/LUV, there's actually more different about it, than similar. In fact, even the bore and stroke are different! While both are technically called "1.4L" displacement engines, in reality the LE2 is slightly larger than the LUJ/LUV. The LE2 displaces 1399cc, and the LUJ/LUV displaces 1364cc. The LE2 uses a 74mm bore with an 81.3mm stroke, and the LUJ/LUV uses a 72.5mm bore with an 82.6mm stroke (making the LE2 closer to "square" than the LUJ/LUV). Moving on to the engine block, the LE2 uses an all-aluminum engine block whereas the LUJ/LUV uses a cast iron engine block. The LE2 uses a forged steel crankshaft whereas the LUJ/LUV is not forged. The piston wrist pins are fully floating in the LE2, in contrast, the wrist pin is pressed into the connecting rod with the LUJ/LUV. Both use an aluminum cylinder head, with four valves per cylinder, actuated by camshafts located in the cylinder head (DOHC). Both engines utilize independent variable valve timing (VVT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. Covering the camshafts on the LE2 is an aluminum valve cover which provides superior valve train noise suppression, whereas the LUJ/LUV uses a composite valve cover with integrated PCV assembly (which is prone to failure on earlier LUJ/LUV engines). Noise suppression was an important goal of the SGE design, and one drive of the 2016+ "gen II" Chevrolet Cruze showcases the work GM did in this area. The direct-injectors, which are normally quite loud are isolated from the valve cover using bushings, and underneath the engine cover is a large piece of noise-suppressing foam. One feature that's trickled down from the modern GM V6 (high feature V6) family into the SGE family is the integrated exhaust manifold. Put another way, there is NO separate exhaust manifold on the LE2, just one exhaust "port" in the cylinder head. This allows extremely close coupling of either a turbocharger, or a catalytic converter to the cylinder head for optimum performance and lower emissions. Because of the lighter materials and integrated engine design, the LE2 weighs in at a whopping 44 pounds less than the LUJ/LUV. On the fueling side, the LE2 uses spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) and the LUJ/LUV uses multi point fuel injection (MPFI). As such, the LE2 uses a much different piston design (featuring a toroidal / ovoidal shaped combustion cavity in the piston head for optimized SIDI operation). Because the LE2 uses SIDI, it borrows technology traditionally found in diesel engines. The LE2 features a common rail for the injectors, and a mechanically driven (by the intake camshaft) high pressure fuel pump complete with a high pressure rail pressure sensor. On the LE2, each cylinder's injector is located in the cylinder head, adjacent to the spark plug, in the valley between the two camshafts. LE2 Direct Injector On the LUJ/LUV, being the engine is MPFI, each fuel injector is located in the intake manifold, just before the intake valve, serviced by a ECU-controlled, variable (low) pressure fuel pump (the LE2 also features an ECU-controlled variable low pressure fuel pump to feed the mechanical high pressure pump). LUJ/LUV MPFI rail and injectors We also find some differences in the ignition system. The LE2 features a per-cylinder, independent "coil on plug" ignition system, with the spark plugs located at an angle in the cylinder head, again an optimization for the SIDI fuel system. In contrast, the LUJ/LUV features a single "coil pack" which houses all four ignition coils (also a common failure point on this engine). The LUJ/LUV spark plugs are not angled. LE2 Angled Spark Plug On the exhaust side of the engines, things could not be more different. While both have a "forward facing" exhaust port configuration (and, hence the turbocharger is located towards the front of the vehicle in both engines), as mentioned previously, the LE2 sports an integrated cylinder head / exhaust manifold design with a single exhaust "port" which the turbocharger assembly is directly bolted to. The LUJ/LUV features a traditional exhaust port configuration in the cylinder head, but the exhaust manifold and turbocharger turbine assembly are cast as one piece, in iron. Both use a spring-loaded-closed wastegate design (controlled by an ECM-driven boost control solenoid) with the turbocharger to control the turbine/compressor speed, but the LE2 uses a fully electronic bypass valve (like the LTG, LF3 and LF4 turbo engines) whereas the LUJ/LUV uses a more traditional mechanical bypass valve (controlled by the ECM via a solenoid). Studying the compressor maps for the LE2 turbo, we find a turbocharger that can move more air, more efficiently, at a lower compressor RPM (the LE2 turbocharger only needs to spin at ~200000 RPM to do what the LUJ/LUV does at ~270000 RPM). LE2 Turbocharger Assembly LUJ/LUV Turbocharger Assembly Catalytic converters like it hot, and with the LE2, the catalytic converter is located even closer to the turbocharger outlet for superior emissions control. The LUJ/LUV catalytic converter is located further downstream due to packaging constraints. LE2 Catalytic Converter To drive the new LE2 engine, an upgraded engine control module (ECM) is required. The new generation "E80" SIDI ECM has seen service in vehicles starting in 2015, and in the Cruze, is replacing the "E78" MPFI ECM used to drive the LUJ/LUV. LE2 E80 ECM One feature that the LUJ/LUV has, which the LE2 does not, is an ECM-controlled variable thermostat. In the LUJ/LUV engine, the ECM dictates the desired engine coolant temperature and can control it by applying current to an electronic thermostat to either cause it to open at a lower, or higher temperature, depending on driver demand, cooling system demand, and other criteria. Fuel Economy Because of the efficiency of the new LE2, the new 2016+ Chevrolet Cruze does not offer an ECO-specific variant, only the choice of manual or automatic transmission (as well as several trim levels: L, LS, LT, and Premier). According to GM, the manual transmission reaches up to 42MPG on the highway and the automatic transmission reaches up to 40MPG on the highway. With the LUJ/LUV, according to GM, fuel economy is up to 42MPG with the ECO manual transmission and up to 38MPG on the highway with the ECO automatic. Also, the new 2016+ Chevrolet Cruze features start/stop technology. When the vehicle is stopped, provided other criteria are met, the engine shuts off to avoid wasting fuel while sitting at a stop light. When the driver takes their foot off the brake, the engine starts again, seamlessly. So, what about power? The LE2 is factory-rated at 153HP (5600 RPM) and 177lb-ft torque (2000-4000 RPM). The LUJ/LUV is factory-rated at 139HP (4900-6000 RPM) and 149 lb-ft of torque (1850-4900 RPM). TRIFECTA's testing suggests that calibration changes will yield similar gains in the LE2 vs the LUJ/LUV. Summary An exciting new era is upon us! GM says the SGE family will replace all of the existing small gasoline-powered engines in their lineup by the end of the decade, so look to find the LE2 (or some variant of it) in all LUJ/LUV applications over the next few years, as well as more wide-spread use of the LFV (1.5L SIDI turbocharged SGE). TRIFECTA is more than excited to lead the aftermarket of the SGE family into the future!
  16. TRIFECTA is pleased to announce the immediate availability of an update to the TRIFECTA Advantage and TRIFECTA Elite calibration for the 2011-2015 Chevrolet Cruze and 2016+ Chevrolet Cruze Limited with the 1.4L Turbo engine. The new calibration is being designated DSVM II (driver selectable vehicle mode, Version 2) in accordance with the recent similar release for the Chevrolet Sonic with the 1.4L Turbo engine. TRIFECTA's DSVM II, on the Chevrolet Cruze, is activated by the cruise control system arming switch. When the cruise control system is enabled, the vehicle operates in STOCK mode. When the cruise control system is disabled, the vehicle operates in SPORT mode. Vehicle modes can be switched at any time, as many times as the driver wishes. Cruise control system functionality is completely retained and unaffected by DSVM II. In SPORT mode, the vehicle responds much more quickly to accelerator input. Automatic transmission shift patterns are optimized for maximum performance and responsiveness. During "everyday" driving manuevers, the vehicle feels very much like it did from the factory, but rolling into the pedal quickly reveals a vehicle that wants to GO. Attentive, but without being "twitchy", power delivery is linear and transmission shifts are purposeful. The vehicle produces maximum TRIFECTA power! In STOCK mode, the vehicle behaves just like it did from the factory, under all driving conditions! Just as was mentioned in the recent release of the Chevrolet Sonic DSVM II calibration, our calibration engineering team has been working on the 2016 Chevrolet Cruze Turbo. Just like any other large scale software project, GM typically uses a common "code base" within an ECU type, and this "code base" is generally updated every model year. After studying the 2016 Chevrolet Cruze ECU code in our engineering center, we discovered some improvements in calibration constructs that had not existed in previous model years, which we determined could be "back ported" to previous model years to offer an exceptionally improved driving experience not possible prior to the 2016 "code base". This discovery, combined with feedback on the current DSVM calibration led to a complete "redo" of the TRIFECTA Cruze calibration. SPORT mode is all new, redesigned from the ground up. Availability: TRIFECTA's DSVM II for the 2011+ Chevrolet Cruze (LUJ--LUV) is available immediately and is incorporated into all new product orders. Exisiting TRIFECTA customers may request and receive the DSVM II calibration update at absolutely no charge by submitting a request at the following link (be sure to include your vehicle's VIN): DSVM II Update Request For those who are not current TRIFECTA customers, who are interested in our new DSVM II calibration have two options: Advantage - $298 (plus s/h): Chevrolet Cruze - 1.4L Turbo Advantage The TRIFECTA Advantage Calibration is meant for 100% stock vehicles. No individualizations or support for parts that do not function on factory calibration (if you have such modifications, be sure to check with us prior to placing order). No remote tuning. Elite - $398 (plus s/h): 2011+ Chevrolet Cruze - 1.4L Turbo Elite The TRIFECTA Elite Powertrain Recalibration with Individualization (Custom Profiling) for the MY2011-MY2016 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T (LUJ--LUV) includes calibration individualization, remote diagnostics, and comprehensive aftermarket hardware software integration support. Contact Us
  17. When a customer buys TRIFECTA, they are tapping into over 6 years of 1.4L Turbo (LUJ/LUV) calibration experience. No other company has calibrated as many Chevrolet Cruze or Chevrolet Sonic vehicles, with experience calibrating stock vehicles all the way to fully upgraded turbochargers. TRIFECTA has always prided itself on offering complete, ongoing, remote-calibration and individualization to customers that purchase the TRIFECTA Elite product. Process and support infrastructure improvements and consolidation have led to both a lower overhead and better ability to provide excellent service to our customers. Additionally, the market spoke to us about price when we set sales records, moving the TRIFECTA Elite product at the recent Black Friday special. Moving forward there will be the following TRIFECTA products: 2011 - Present Chevrolet Cruze (LUJ/LUV) $298 + s/h - TRIFECTA Advantage Calibration for 2011+ Chevrolet Cruze (LUJ/LUV) $398 + s/h - TRIFECTA Elite Calibration for 2011+ Chevrolet Cruze (LUJ/LUV) 2012 - Present Chevrolet Sonic (LUJ/LUV) $298 + s/h - TRIFECTA Advantage Calibration for 2012+ Chevrolet Sonic (LUV) $398 + s/h - TRIFECTA Elite Calibration for 2012+ Chevrolet Sonic (LUV) What's the difference between the two products? Advantage = Meant for 100% stock vehicles. No individualization or support for parts that do not function on factory calibration (if you have such modifications, be sure to check with us prior to placing order). No remote tuning. Elite = Same as Advantage, however, we will individualize the calibration for parts already installed at the time of purchase and provide updates for modifications installed after the fact. Full diagnostic log review when needed. This package is the premium full support package. Both Advantage and Elite include a flash loader device
  18. (This vehicle is a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze LTZ with a 1.4T engine and 6T40 automatic transmission (on 91 octane pump gas) with stock wheels/tires.) Tacoma, WA., January 18, 2014 – TRIFECTA presents: MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze TRIFECTA powertrain calibration with class leading performance (+44 WHP +51 ft-lbs peak) for all MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze vehicles starting at under $300 (January 2015 Pricing Update): --The TRIFECTA Advantage Powertrain Recalibration featuring class leading power delivery (+44 WHP +51 ft-lbs) for your Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T MY2011-MY2015 (meant for stock vehicles) with pricing starting at $298 (Pricing as of January 2015) (includes a TRIFECTA flash loader) For modified vehicles that require a powertrain calibration to support aftermarket hardware (custom tune), such as a cold air intake/downpipe/etc (supported 3rd party hardware only): -- The TRIFECTA Advantage Plus (Advantage+) Powertrain Calibration with Diagnostic Datalogging and Aftermarket 3rd Party Hardware Support for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T now starts at $388 (Pricing as of January 2015) (includes a TRIFECTA flash loader). For extensively modified vehicles that require individualized calibration development (custom tuning and ongoing custom tune revisions), (progressive or ongoing custom tuning and hardware diagnostics): -- The TRIFECTA Elite Powertrain Recalibration with Individualization (Custom Profiling) for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T includes calibration individualization, remote diagnostics, and comprehensive aftermarket hardware software integration support. The TRIFECTA Elite Powertrain Recalibration with Individualization (Custom Profiling) for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T pricing starts at $588 (Pricing as of January 2015) (includes a TRIFECTA flash loader) Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T MY2011-MY2015 TRIFECTA Calibration January 2015 Featureset Update: TRIFECTA: DSVM (Select-a-Tune MKII, Select-a-Tune MKI Optional!) is now available! (January 2015): -- TRIFECTA iDSVM (Interactive Driver Selectable Vehicle Mode) (Select-a-Tune MKII); NEW! Dedicated ECO Mode: Toggle between Tour and ECO mode via the Cruise Control arm states. -- TRIFECTA ECO Mode: Up to 4 MPG improvement by dedicated TRIFECTA ECO mode prioritizing fuel economy in engine calibration profile and transmission shift strategy. -- TRIFECTA Interactive Driver Selectable Vehicle Mode (Select-a-Tune MKI): Toggle between Tour and Stock+ mode via the Cruise Control arm states. Stock+ indicates stock power level plus TRIFECTA fuel economy and driving dynamics optimizations. -- Fuel Economy improvements of up to 4 MPG!, vastly improved throttle response (through optimized engine timing and torque management, and more boost; power feels linear and immediately responsive!) and an industry leading transmission calibration (transmission performance tune) contribute to the best drivability on the market for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T. -- The TRIFECTA powertrain calibrations are undetectable by dealership diagnostic tools and will not leave footprints or watermarks in your ECM. (All TRIFECTA Powertrain Calibrations (performance tunes and custom tunes) do not increment the ECM write counter or increment entries in the flash history.) (Will match all CVN numbers, file hash/checksums, and file markers of the stock operating system and calibration file.) -- Calibration files include both the Powertrain Calibration file (performance tune) and the stock file so that you can restore the vehicle back to 100 percent stock at any time! Features Carried over from the October 2014 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T MY2011-MY2015 TRIFECTA Calibration Featureset and Pricing Update: The Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T TRIFECTA powertrain recalibration delivers more than 130 horsepower per liter and more than 140 ft-lbs per liter – powering a fuel efficient vehicle whose drivers are more inclined to use it while ensuring critical powertrain reliability (with specific power increases of +51 ft-lbs and +44 WHP peak to a completely stock MY2014 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T 6T40). Enhancements made to the Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T Ecotec engine software include: -- All TRIFECTA Powertrain Recalibrations for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T automatic transmission vehicles corresponding with the TRIFECTA MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T October 2014 Update (General Update 2014.3) includes updated automatic transmission calibrations provides smoother shifting, improved shift times, and improved shifting logic vs previous calibration revisions; updated featuresets include rolling anti-lag and 300 percent faster shifts than stock. -- Octane Adaptive construct enables multi-phased timing tables: Five distinct timing tables replace the OE GM implementation of high/low octane tables -- Multi-dimensional Airflow Coefficient tables, adds air pressure bias and knock history overlay for enhanced accuracy in boost scenarios -- Virtualized torque prediction coefficients recalculation model added -- Airflow based commanded fuel ratio strategies added -- Multi-stage knock sensor decay and recovery rate tables added -- TRIFECTA ECP.MK2 (Hybrid Speed Density) support and constructs added Additional information and availability: -Please contact TRIFECTA Performance: info@trifectaperformance.com or Contact Us for more information -The Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T MY2011-2015+ TRIFECTA Powertrain Calibration Reprogramming (General Update increment: January 2015 General Update 2015.0) is available as a general update that supersedes and replaces any existing TRIFECTA calibrations issued previously for the MY2011-2015+ Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T vehicle types. -The featureset improvements and GM bug fixes are in addition to the power increase and existing featureset already included in previous Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T TRIFECTA calibrations. -This powertrain calibration includes a TRIFECTA powertrain calibration file specific to your vehicle and includes a flash loader device -Premium fuel is recommended, but not required -Powertrain calibrations currently exist for the US, CA, EU, RUS/CIS, MEC, and Asia areas, with more regions to follow
  19. The MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T headlines all-new TRIFECTA Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T lineup with gains of +44 WHP +51 ft-lbs of torque and improved featuresets and product lineup: -- The TRIFECTA powertrain recalibration for the Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T blends class leading all-around performance with improved fuel efficiency. -- Updated October 2014 TRIFECTA Pricing for the MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T now begins at $298 -- The TRIFECTA Advantage Powertrain Recalibration for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T brings updated pricing in anticipation for the MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze starting now under $299 (Pricing as of October 2014) (TRIFECTA Advantage Powertrain Recalibration for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T includes a TRIFECTA flash loader) -- The TRIFECTA Advantage Plus (Advantage+) Powertrain Recalibration with Diagnostic Datalogging for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T includes Diagnostic Datalogging and aftermarket hardware support is $388 (Pricing as of October 2014) (includes a TRIFECTA flash loader) -- The TRIFECTA Elite Powertrain Recalibration with Individualization (Custom Profiling) for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T includes calibration individualization, remote diagnostics, and comprehensive aftermarket hardware software integration support. The TRIFECTA Elite Powertrain Recalibration with Individualization (Custom Profiling) for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T pricing starts at $588 (includes a TRIFECTA flash loader) -- All TRIFECTA Powertrain Recalibrations for the MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T automatic transmission vehicles corresponding with the TRIFECTA MY2011-MY2015 Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T October 2014 Update now includes updated automatic transmission calibrations provides smoother shifting, improved shift times, and improved shifting logic vs previous calibration revisions; updated featuresets include rolling anti-lag and 300 percent faster shifts than stock. -- With the current generation of TRIFECTA's flash loader solutions and the TRIFECTA Transparency featureset, when flashing your vehicle, the TRIFECTA flash loader does not increment the ECM write counter or increment entries in the flash history. The Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T TRIFECTA powertrain recalibration delivers more than 130 horsepower per liter and more than 140 ft-lbs per liter – powering a fuel efficient vehicle whose drivers are more inclined to use it while ensuring critical powertrain reliability. Enhancements made to the Chevrolet Cruze 1.4T Ecotec engine software to withstand the added stresses include: -- Extended testing of more than 100,000 miles with 100 hrs + of wide open throttle testing -- Powertrain calibration has been tested and validated for various environments, such as cold/heat, elevation, and variations in fuel quality -- Octane Adaptive construct enables multi-phased timing tables: Five distinct timing tables replace the OE GM implementation of high/low octane tables -- Multi-dimensional Airflow Coefficient tables, adds air pressure bias and knock history overlay for enhanced accuracy in boost scenarios -- Virtualized torque prediction coefficients recalculation model added -- Airflow based commanded fuel ratio strategies added -- Multi-stage knock sensor decay and recovery rate tables added -- TRIFECTA ECP.MK2 (Hybrid Speed Density) support and constructs added
  20. Specifications of the TRIFECTA Performance MY2014+ Chevrolet Cruze 2.0TD LUZ ECM software reprogramming: -Specific power increases of +66 ft-lbs@2850RPM under the curve and +51 WHP@4300RPM (Peak vs Peak gains of +50 ft-lbs and +39 WHP on ULSD diesel) -Powertrain calibration has been tested and validated for various environments, such as cold/heat, elevation, and summer/winter diesel blend -Power feels linear and immediately responsive -Clean Diesel combustion cycle efficiency is maintained: under elevated duty cycles the vehicle will not increment particulate (soot) at an elevated rate (any faster than the OE vehicle ECM calibration) -Combustion cycle efficiency improvements increase fuel efficiency, lowers DEF consumption while lowering DPF accumulation rate -Improvements made to DPF regeneration cycle calculation model reduces emissions and increases fuel economy: under severe vehicle duty cycle, will reduce visits to the dealership for manual regeneration and reduce probability of vehicle limp mode due to emissions equipment service requirements -Retains all GM OE diagnostics functionality and ECM featuresets -Retains all OE error code reporting and functionality -Emissions readiness checks are present; emissions compliant -Maintains functionality of ABS and TC systems -Return to stock functionality included with flash loader -Extended testing of 100,000 miles with 100 hrs of wide open throttle testing -C.A.R.B. pending Specifications of the TRIFECTA Performance MY2014+ Chevrolet Cruze 2.0TD Aisin AF40 6-Speed automatic transmission TCM calibration software reprogramming: -Supplementary Aisin transmission TCM reprogramming compliments the ECM reprogramming and completes the TRIFECTA Powertrain Calibration: designed to work in unison with the ECM reprogramming for optimized performance -Improved shift times in adverse shift patterns -Improved shift logic -Does not shorten transmission life or increase cooling requirements -Retains all OE diagnostics functionality and TCM diagnostics -Retains all OE error code reporting and functionality -Improved fuel economy with improvements made to torque converter slip profiles Installation Notes: -Estimated installation time of ~30 minutes Dyno sheet: Chevrolet Cruze 2.0TD LUZ dyno graph (ULSD diesel) (this vehicle is a MY2014 Chevrolet Cruze 2.0TD with a LUZ 2.0TD engine) - stock wheels/tires: Additional information and availability: -Please contact TRIFECTA Performance: info@trifectaperformance.com or visit WOT-tuning: trifectaperformance.com for more information -This powertrain calibration is available exclusively through TRIFECTA Performance and WOT-tuning; (as of September 22nd 2014): wholesale inquiries are welcome though provided that you are an existing and active TRIFECTA reseller -This powertrain calibration includes a TRIFECTA powertrain calibration file specific to your vehicle and includes a flash loader device -Powertrain calibrations currently exist for North American vehicles only, with more regions to follow -Pricing TBA
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